Associated Studies

The ALSWH has become a key foundation study for three other studies: the Centre for Research Excellence in Women’s Health in the 21st Century (CREWH21), the International Collaboration for a Life Course Approach to Reproductive Health and Chronic Disease Events (InterLACE), and the Mothers and their Children’s Health Study (MatCH).

CREWH21 was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia and ran from 2010 to 2015. The objectives of CREWH21 were to examine how changes in the health system impact on women’s health and how changes in other aspects of women’s lives impact on their health and health care needs. It aimed to provide new insights into the epidemiology of common conditions and a strong evidence base for policy and economic analyses. CREWH21 research combined data from the ALSWH with administrative health services data using the rapidly developing record linkage capabilities of the NCRIS funded Population Health Research Network. CREWH21 focussed on four priority health issues of national importance and particular relevance to women (reproductive health, mental health, cardiovascular conditions and musculoskeletal problems).

CREWH21 publications

InvestigatorsResearch Fellows
Annette Dobson (Director)                       
Gita Mishra (Co-Director)
Wendy Brown
Christina Lee
Nancy Pachana
Julie Byles
Deborah Loxton
Jayne Lucke
Leigh Tooth
David Sibbritt
Dr Paul Gardiner – May 2013-December 2015
Dr Gerrie-Cor Gast – September 2011-January 2014
Dr Xenia Dolja-Gore – October 2014-October 2015
Dr Melissa Harris – January 2015–October 2015
Dr Danielle Herbert – April 2011-December 2012
Dr Alexis Hure – May 2011–January 2013
Dr Caroline  Jackson – February 2012-February 2015
Dr Mark Jones – January 2012-February 2015
Dr Geeske Peeters – May 2011-August 2015
Dr Ingrid Rowlands – July 2014-October 2016

 

International collaboration for a Life course Approach to reproductive health and Chronic disease Events (InterLACE) is a collaboration of 20 existing international longitudinal studies. The aim of InterLACE is to undertake cross-cohort research by combining data at the individual level from more than 240,000 participants from these studies to investigate the role of reproductive health across life on subsequent cardiovascular events and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. While this poses cross-cohort and cross-cultural research challenges, InterLACE has the capability to address research questions and generate robust evidence that is not possible from any single cohort study. InterLACE is led by Professor Gita Mishra and funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, 2012-2015. www.interlace.org.au

MatCH is a substudy of the ALSWH with mothers from the 1973-78 cohort being invited to participate in a survey of every child in their family.  The MatCH study represents an unparalleled opportunity for a family-centred approach to child health outcomes that will support a more integrated and targeted approach to the delivery of preventive and primary health care for all Australian families. Professor Gita Mishra leads a team of 10 investigators, from across Australia and overseas, investigating the relationship between the mothers’ health history and the family environment to children’s health outcomes, including health service utilisation.  Linkage to administrative databases for early child development and educational outcomes is another feature of this study. MatCH is funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, 2014-2017. http://www.alswh.org.au/match

ALSWH data are also used in large studies using pooled data:


The Australian and New Zealand Diabetes and Cancer Collaboration
(D Magliano)
NHMRC (project grant), 2011-2013

Men, Women and Ageing: Predictors of ageing well in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health and the Perth Health in Men Study (A Dobson)

Maintaining health and independent living are high priorities for Australia’s rapidly expanding older population. This project capitalized on two existing large-scale studies, the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health involving over 12,000 older women selected from every part of Australia, and the Health in Men Study involving over 12,000 older men from Perth, Western Australia, to increase our scientific understanding of strategies for maintaining the health and wellbeing of older people living in the community.  ALSWH and HIMS have been following older Australians in order to determine what contributes to older people’s health and quality of life. The Men, Women and Aging project combined data from these two studies to address the following questions:

  • What health-related, personal, lifestyle and social factors predict survival and healthy non- disabled life in men and women aged 70-90 years?
  • Do changes in lifestyle in older age (e.g., smoking cessation) affect length and quality of life?
  • Who makes greatest use of health services, and who least, and how does this relate to health outcomes?
  • How are health and lifestyle factors related to social connectedness and independent living in older age?
  • What health and lifestyle factors predict positive mental health in older age?  
  • How are older men’s and women’s lifestyles and health status different, and how are they the same?
  • Should health promotion programs in old age target men and women separately, or not?  

Men, Women and Ageing was funded through the Ageing Well, Ageing Productively initiative of the National Health and Medical Research Council and the Australian Research Council, and ran from 2006 to 2010.

Using health outcome data from pooled Longitudinal Studies of Ageing to develop statistical and microsimulation models to determine how to best compress morbidity and optimize healthy and productive ageing (DYNOPTA)

DYNOPTA draws together data from nine Australian Longitudinal Studies of Ageing (LSAs), including 53,484 participants, to identify factors capable of preventing disease, reducing ill-health, and promoting engaged and successful ageing for Australians.

The focus is upon conditions that significantly contribute to the burden of disease including cognitive decline and dementia, sensory impairment, impairment in mobility and common mental disorders such as depression. Although individual studies contain rich data on particular topics, there are only a small number of individuals in each study with specific medical conditions, or combinations of different conditions, especially at the older ages. Pooling data from nine studies overcomes this problem. This innovative and interdisciplinary study also involves development of the first Australian dynamic micro-simulation model of the health and social outcomes of the baby boomer and older cohorts. The simulation allows for evaluation of the impact of modifying risk factors, and costs associated with different trajectories of health and ageing. DYNOPTA takes an interdisciplinary life course approach, incorporating interdependencies among demographic, behavioural, social, economic and health factors. Our multidisciplinary team and collaborative pooling of existing studies adds value and builds upon experience, as recommended in the Prime Minister’s Science, Engineering and Innovation Council 2003 report. The outcomes will direct health and social policy to promote health behaviour, and social and medical interventions to compress morbidity and optimize healthy ageing in Australian society over the next 40 years.

DYNOPTA was funded through the Ageing Well, Ageing Productively initiative of the National Health and Medical Research Council and the Australian Research Council. Further information about the project can be found at http://dynopta.anu.edu.au/index.php

Other funded studies using ALSWH data:itle

 

Duration

Funding body

Smoking and women’s health in Australia (A Dobson)

 

2001

Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care

Young women and smoking prevention program (A Dobson)

2003

Health Promotion Queensland

Are cardiac conditions in older women managed appropriately? (A Dobson)

2003-2005

National Health and Medical Research Council (project grant)

How well do health and community services help older people with neurodegenerative disorders and their family caregivers? (A Dobson)

2003-2005

National Health and Medical Research Council (Healthy Ageing Research grant)

Understanding and influencing physical activity to improve population health outcomes (Owen N)

2004 -2008

National Health & Medical Research Council (program grant)

The impact of physical activity on outcomes for older women (Brown W)

2005 -2007

Office for Women, Department of Families, Community Services, and Indigenous Affairs

Employed carers  (A Dobson)

 

2006-2007

Dept. of Health and Ageing

CAM use among mid age women: A national mixed-method study across the urban-rural divide (Adams J)

2008 - 2010

National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC Complementary and Alternative Medicines Special Call

Provision of Stage 2 research on carers based on the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (A Dobson)    

2008 - 2010   

Dept. of Health and Ageing

Depression and cardiovascular disease in a cohort of mid-aged Australian women (A Dobson)

2009

Heart Foundation and beyondblue

Needs of spouse carers of World War II veterans before and after widowhood (A Dobson)

 

Dept. Veteran’s Affairs

Psychosocial assessment in the perinatal period: does it improve maternal health outcomes? (M-P Austin)

2010-2012

Bupa foundation

Therapeutic pluralism in pregnancy, labour and birthing: Decision-making, communication and inter-professional dynamics (Adams J)

2010-2012

Australian Research Council – Discovery Project

Moving more and sitting less: population health research to understand and influence physical activity and sedentary behavior (N Owen)

2010-2014

National Health & Medical Research Council

Navigating back pain care: A sociological study of women’s illness pathways within and between intersecting social worlds. (Broom A)

2011 -2013

Australian Research Council – Discovery Project

Transition to adulthood : The wellbeing of young women and men in Australia (Lee C)

2012 -2014

Australian Research Council – Discovery Project

Trajectories and turning points for women’s reproductive health (Mishra G)

2013-2017

ARC (Future Fellowship)

 

 

Sample

Survey 1 (baseline) 1996

More than 40,000 women responded to the baseline surveys for the main cohorts in 1996. Because of uncertainties about the accuracy of the Medicare database (which was used as the sampling frame for the stratified random samples), response rates cannot be exactly specified. It is estimated that 41%-42%, 53-56%, and 37-40% of the 1973-78 cohort, the 1946-51 cohort and the 1921-26 cohort, respectively, responded to the initial invitation to participate. Confidentiality restrictions meant that the names of the selected women were unknown to researchers. Usual methods of encouraging participation such as by telephone could not be used. The response rates were pleasing given that the invitation included a request for women to participate in the longitudinal study for up to 20 years.

In light of these response rates, it is important to assess any response bias so that the generalizability of the study findings can be determined. A comparison of the demographic characteristics of respondents and non-respondents was not possible because privacy guidelines prevented the researchers from having any information about women who were selected to receive an invitation but did not respond. We were able, however, to obtain aggregate data for non-respondents’ use of health services (from the Australian Medicare database). These data suggest that there are small differences in use of health services among respondents and non-respondents, with non-respondents less likely, for example, to have visited a medical specialist in the last 2 years (1946-51 cohort, 49% versus 54%; 1921-26 cohort, 65% versus 72%). There was not a significant difference in health service use between respondents and non-respondents from the 1973-78 cohort.

A proportion of this difference may be explained by the fact that some women who were selected may no longer be living in Australia or may have died, as the Medicare database is not routinely linked to emigration records or the National Death Index in Australia.

Although we were not able to ascertain reasons for non-response (because we were not allowed to know any details about the selected women), we were able, through comparison with the 1996 census data, to confirm that the participants in each of the cohorts are reasonably representative of the general population of women of the same age in Australia (Table 1). There is some response bias in terms of overrepresentation of women with tertiary education and underrepresentation of some groups of immigrant women.

Table 1: Socio-demographic characteristics for the young, mid-age and older respondents and for women of the same age in the general population (ABS)
 
Young
(18-23 years)
WHA         ABS
%    %
Mid-age
(45-50 years)
WHA   ABS
  %   %
Older
(70-75 years)
WHA   ABS
  %   %
Number
14,762
759,680
14,072
734,155
12,804
377,152
             
Main current employment status
           
Employed full-time
31.3
32.4
36.1
36.0
NA
Employed part-time
19.2
26.4
30.1
28.5
NA
Worked (without pay)/ employed (other)
1.9
1.3
7.0
2.0
NA
Unemployed
6.4
10.5
1.9
4.0
NA
Total not in labour force
39.4
26.3
21.6
27.0
NA
Not stated
1.8
2.7
3.3
2.5
NA
             
Highest qualification completed
           
No post school qualification
69.8
69.3
63.1
61.8
79.8
70.4
Trade/Apprenticeship
2.4
7.9
3.5
7.0
3.7
2.7
Certificate/Diploma
15.1
6.0
15.9
8.7
7.3
3.3
University Degree
12.1
7.7
16.3
11.6
4.0
2.4
Other (not stated, inadequately described)
0.6
9.1
1.2
10.8
5.2
21.2
             
Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander
           
Non indigenous
97.9
94.9
98.1
96.7
91.6
93.7
Aboriginal or TSI
1.6
2.7
0.8
1.1
0.3
0.4
Not stated
0.5
2.5
1.1
2.1
8.1
5.9
             
Country of birth
           
Australia
88.6
77.8
69.0
62.6
68.5
66.4
Other English speaking
3.5
4.1
13.9
11.6
12.4
11.0
Other Europe
1.3
1.6
8.7
11.0
9.7
12.7
Asia
3.6
10.6
4.3
8.2
1.8
3.3
Other/not stated
3.0
6.0
4.2
6.5
7.6
6.5
             
Present marital status
           
Married
8.2
9.0
75.1
73.0
54.7
48.9
Separated/divorced
0.0
1.1
13.2
18.7
6.3
6.8
Widowed
0.0
0.2
2.1
2.7
35.2
39.9
Never married
79.0
89.8
3.9
5.6
3.2
4.4
De Facto (not collected by ABS)
12.0
-
5.7
-
0.6
-
             
Present housing situation
           
House
74.3
79.4
84.7
89.2
76.7
79.3
Flat/apartment/unit
20.0
14.0
7.1
6.5
19.4
12.9
Other
5.7
6.6
8.2
4.3
3.9
7.9

The above table and information are taken from:
Brown, W. J., Dobson, A. J., Bryson, L., & Byles, J. E. (1999). The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health: on the progress of the main cohort studies. Journal of Women's Health & Gender-Based Medicine, 8(5), 681-688.

Sample for the longitudinal study of the 1973-78, 1946-51 and 1921-26 cohorts

Some participants completed Survey 1 in 1996 and did not provide any contact details (532 women from the 1973-78 cohort, 383 women from the 1946-52 cohort and 508 women from the 1921-26 cohort). Also, a very small number of women have alerted the study that they were not eligible by their birth date and they have been removed. Hence the numbers of women actually enrolled in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were 14,247 women in the 1973-78 cohort, 13,714 women in the 1946-51 cohort and 12,432 women in the 1921-26 cohort (Lee, C., Dobson, A. J., Brown, W. J., Bryson, L., Byles, J., Warner-Smith, P., & Young, A. F. (2005). Cohort Profile: the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. International Journal of Epidemiology, 34(5), 987-991).

1973-78 cohort

Among the 1973-78 cohort, 69% responded to Survey 2 in 2000, 66% to Survey 3 in 2003, 68% responded to Survey 4 in 2006, 62% to Survey 5 in 2009 and to Survey 6 in 2012, and 57% to Survey 7 in 2015 (See Table 2).  This retention compares well with other surveys of this highly mobile age group.  The major reason for non-response among the 1973-78 cohort has been that the research team has been unable to contact the women (between 21% and 28% of the cohort at subsequent surveys), despite using all possible methods of maintaining contact.  Women in their twenties are characterised by high levels of mobility, change of surnames on marriage, often not having telephone listings, not being registered to vote, and making extended trips outside Australia for work, education, or recreation.  Despite these losses, modelling has shown that there is no serious bias in estimates of associations between risk factors and health outcomes in longitudinal models (Powers, J., & Loxton, D. (2010). The Impact of Attrition in an 11-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study of Younger Women. Annals of Epidemiology, 20(4), 318-321).

Table 2: Participation and retention of 14,247 women in the 1973-78 cohort of women who were 18-23 years old at the first survey in 1996*

Survey
Age in years

Survey 2
22-27

Survey 3
25-30

Survey 4
28-33

Survey 5
31-36

Survey 6
34-39

Survey 7
37-42

     Deceased

22

33

50

58

77

103

     Frailty (e.g. intellectual disability)

3

9

12

15

16

16

     Withdrawn

230

518

800

951

1157

1436

Total ineligible

255

560

862

1024

1251

1555

             

Contacted but did not return survey

1332

653

1371

1994

1455

1399

Unable to contact participant

2972

3953

2869

3030

3532

4107

Total non-respondents

4304

4606

4240

5024

4987

5506

Respondents completed survey

9688

9081

9145

8199

8009

7186

Eligible at current survey

13,992

13,687

13,385

13,223

12,996

12692

Response rate as % eligible

69.2%

66.3%

68.3%

62.0%

61.6%

56.6%

*data known as at 27th June 2019

1946-51 cohort

Retention has been much higher among the 1946-51 cohort of women; 92% responded to Survey 2 in 1998, 85% responded to Survey 3 in 2001, Survey 4 in 2004 and Survey 5 in 2007, and 83% responded to Survey 6 in 2010, 81% to Survey 7 in 2013 and 80% to Survey 8 in 2016 (See Table 3). The major reasons for non-response among the 1946-51 cohort has been that the research team has been unable to contact the women (6% to 8% of eligible women between Survey 2 and Survey 6), and non-return of questionnaires by women who could be contacted (2% at Survey 2 and 7% to 10% of eligible women at subsequent surveys). 

Table 3: Participation and retention of 13,714 women in the 1946-51 cohort of women who were 45-50 years old at the first survey in 1996*

Survey
Age in years

Survey 2
47-52

Survey 3
50-55

Survey 4
53-58

Survey 5
56-61

Survey 6
59-64

Survey 7 62-67

Survey 8
65-70

     Deceased

50

119

216

328

474

673

874

 

     Frailty (e.g. dementia, stroke)

7

23

34

51

70

100

120

     Withdrawn

209

424

622

870

1108

1651

2003

Total ineligible

266

566

872

1249

1652

2424

2997

               

Contacted but did not return survey

254

997

886

995

1148

1051

714

     Unable to contact participant

856

925

1051

832

903

1088

1381

     Total non-respondents

1110

1922

1937

1827

2051

2139

2095

Respondents completed survey

12,338

11,226

10,905

10,638

10,011

9,151

8,622

Eligible at current survey

13,448

13,148

12,842

12,465

12,062

11,290

10,717

Retention rate as % eligible

91.7%

85.4%

84.9%

85.3%

83.0%

 81.1%

80.5%

*data known as at 27th June 2019

1921-26 cohort

Of women from the 1921-26 cohort, 93% responded to Survey 2 in 1999, 88% to Survey 3 in 2002, 87% to Survey 4 in 2005, 81% to Survey 5 in 2008 and to Survey 6 in 2011 (See Table 4).  Among the 1921-26 cohort the major reason for non-response was non-return of the questionnaire, rising from 4% at Survey 2 to 17% at Survey 6 although up to 9% of participants could not be contacted. Non-respondent women tended to report poorer self-rated health at Survey 1 than respondents. The effects of these losses were evaluated in terms of losses due to death and non-death (Brilleman, S. L., Pachana, N. A., & Dobson, A. J. (2010). The impact of attrition on the representativeness of cohort studies of older people. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 10. doi: 7110.1186/1471-2288-10-71). Brilleman et al. concluded that non-death losses were potentially a greater source of bias than effects of death.

Table 4: Participation and retention of 12,432 women in the 1921-26 cohort of women who were aged 70-75 years at Survey 1 in 1996*

Survey
Age in years  

Survey 2
73-78

Survey 3
76-81

Survey 4
79-84

Survey 5
82-87

Survey 6
85-90

     Deceased

549

1237

2288

3626

5282

     Frailty (e.g. dementia, stroke)

95

303

525

595

790

     Withdrawn

563

1090

1360

1370

1342

Total ineligible

1207

2630

4173

5591

7418

     contacted but did not return survey

481

861

592

640

862

     unable to contact participant

310

295

509

641

97

     Total non-respondents

791

1156

1101

1281

959

Respondents completed survey

10,434

8,646

7,158

5,560

4,055

Eligible at current survey

11,225

9,802

8,259

6,841

5,014

Retention rate as % eligible

93.0%

88.2%

86.7%

81.3%

80.9%

*data known as at April 2018

Six-month follow up surveys of the 1921-26 cohort

From November 2011, shorter surveys containing a set of core questions were mailed to the 1921-26 cohort every six months after the return of the previous survey. Table 5 shows the numbers of eligible participants and respondents at end of each six month period. Response rates have been consistently above seventy percent.

Table 5: Participation in 6-month follow up surveys of the 12,432 women in the 1921-26 cohort (from November 2011 onwards)*

 

May 2012

Nov 2012

May 2013

Nov 2013

May 2014

Nov 2014

May 2015 Nov 2015 May 2016 Nov
2016
May
2017
Nov
2017
May
2018

Nov
2018

May
2019

June
2019*

Deceased

5,535 5930 6,231 6,625 6,952 7,293 7,622 7,967 8,266 8,596 8,879 9,214 9,456 9,745 9,852 9,854

Withdrawn

 2,331 2,360 2,405 2,342 2,289 2,176 2,097 1,962 1,870 1,735 1,672 1,525 1,444 1,309 1,289 1,314

Total ineligible

7,866 8,290 8,636 8,967 9,241 9,469 9,719 9,929 10,136 10,331 10,551 10,739 10,900 1,1054 11,141 11,168

Non-respondent

1,183

886

963

1005

1,090

1,017

1,007 1,006 958 881 849 743 685 643 688 1,071

Respondent

 3,430 3,303 2,880 2,507 2,148 1,993 1,753 1,544 1,385 1,267 1,079 997 894 782 650 240

Total eligible

 4,613 4,189 3,796 3,512 3,238 3,010 2,760 2,550  2,343 2,148 1,928 1,740 1,579 1,425 1,338 1,311

Response rate as % of eligible

74.4% 78.8% 74.9% 71.4% 66.3%  66.2% 63.5% 60.5% 59.1% 59.0% 56.0% 57.3% 56.6% 54.9% 48.6% 18.3%

* using 6MF questionnaires logged by 27th June 2019; this 6MF collection period is still open for respondents.

Comparison of the cohorts with Australian Censuses in 2001, 2006 and 2011

Demographic characteristics (Indigenous status, country of birth, marital status, lone person household, education, and employment) of respondents at each of the surveys have been compared with those of women of the same age in the Australian population, using data from the Australian Census conducted closest to the survey (see (1) Powers, J. (2004) Comparison of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health cohorts with women of the same age in the 2001 Census. Technical Report. Newcastle: ALSWH.  At: WHAvsCensus2001Feb2004; (2) Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (2009). Comparison of the ALSWH cohorts with women of the same ages in the 2006 Census and the 2004/2005 National Health Survey. In: Technical Report No. 32. 111-142; (3) Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (2013). Comparison of the ALSWH cohorts with women of the same ages in the 2011 Census. In: Technical Report No. 36. 107-135. As was found previously, there was some over-representation of Australian-born women and of women with tertiary education. In addition, ALSWH participants were more likely to be married, be employed and work longer hours than women of the same age in the general population. Some of these differences will be due to differences in the questions asked and the sampling frame i.e. to be selected for ALSWH women must have a Medicare card.

Longitudinal sample for the 1989-95 cohort

In 2012 and 2013, 17011 18-23 year old women were enrolled in the 1989-95 cohort. Women were mainly recruited using the internet and social media platforms. Consistent with the other cohorts, women were required to have a Medicare card. Women completed the online survey and provided consent to linkage of survey data with administrative databases such as Medicare.

Due to this different method of recruiting it was not possible to provide a response rate. Therefore it was necessary to compare the representativeness of the sample with women of the same age in the closest Australian Census (see Table 6). The 1989-95 cohort were broadly representative in terms of area of residence, State and Territory distribution, marital status and age distribution. Women with tertiary education were over-represented.

Table 6: Comparison of sociodemographic characteristics of the 1989-95 cohort of women aged 18 to 23 in 2013 with women of the same age range in the 2011 Australian Census

Table 6.1: Age

Age

1989-95 cohort 2013 (n=17,069)

%

2011 Census (N=847,042)

%

 

18

15.2

16.0

 

19

17.5

16.2

 

20

17.2

16.8

 

21

16.5

17.1

 

22

16.9

17.0

 

23

16.7

17.0

Table 6.2: State/territories

 

1989-95 cohort 2013 (n=17,069)

%

2011 Census (N=847,042)

%

 

New South Wales

27.8

31.0

 

Victoria

24.0

25.4

 

Queensland

22.3

20.6

 

Western Australia

11.0

10.6

 

South Australia

7.6

7.3

 

Australian Capital Territory

3.3

2.0

 

Tasmania

2.9

2.1

 

Northern Territory

0.8

1.0

Table 6.3: Area of residence

 

1989-95 cohort 2013 (n=17,069)

%

2011 Census (N=847,042)

%

 

Major city

75.3

74.5

 

Inner regional

16.6

16.0

 

Outer regional

6.7

7.2

 

Remote

0.8

1.1

 

Very remote

Migratory/no usual address

0.3

N/A

0.9

0.3

 

Missing

0.3

-

Table 6.4: Highest Qualification

 

1989-95 cohort 2013 (n=17,069)

%

2011 Census (N=847,042)

%

 

Less than Year 12

7.4

14.9

 

Year 12 or equivalent

43.0

46.1

 

Certificate / Diploma

25.9

21.7

 

University degree

22.5

9.4

 

Missing/not stated/inadequately described

1.2

7.8

Table 6.5: Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin*

 

1989-95 cohort 2013 (n=17,069)

%

2011 Census (N=847,042)

%

 

No

97.3

91.9

 

Yes

2.7

3.4

 

Missing

0.0

4.7

Table 6.6: Marital Status

 

1989-95 cohort 2013 (n=17,069)

%

2011 Census (N=847,042)

%

 

Never married

95.5

94.5

 

Married

3.0

4.9

 

Separated/divorced/widowed

0.4

0.6

 

Missing

1.2

-

*n=14,909 as this question was only asked in a later version of the survey

Table 7: Participation and retention of 17,010 women in the 1989-95 cohort of women who were aged 18-23 years at Survey 1 in 2013*

Survey
Age in years  

Survey 2
19-24

Survey 3
20-25

Survey 4
21-26

Survey 5
22-27

     Deceased

1 6 8 13

     Frailty (e.g. mental impairment)

1 1 1 1

     Withdrawn

681 694 1744 1943

Total ineligible

683 701 1753 1957

     contacted but did not return survey

2362 3879 1850 1813

     unable to contact participant

2621 3469 4400 4745

     Total non-respondents

4983 7348 6250 6558

Respondents completed survey

11,344 8,961 9,007 8495

Eligible at current survey

16,327 16,309 15,257 15053

Response rate as % eligible

69.5% 54.9% 59.0% 56.4%

*data known as at 27th June 2019

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ALSWH theme

Themes

Use of and Satisfaction With Health Care Services


Includes availability of, access to and utilisation of health services, cultural appropriateness and women’s perceptions of the quality of care provided. Since 2012, the ALSWH has been able to link survey data with external administrative datasets including Cancer Registries, Admitted Patient Hospital Collections, Perinatal datasets and Aged Care datasets. This has expanded the research in this area and also provided opportunities to validate self-reported health service use.



Life Stages and Key Events


Identifies factors that help women to maintain the highest level of health and quality of life following key events such as birth of first child, divorce, menopause, widowhood, major illness, moving house, changing job, falls and fractures in the elderly, dementia and bereavement.

 With each new wave of data collected on the cohorts, the ALSWH has increasing opportunities to measure transitions and trajectories, for example, reproductive health across the lifespan, trajectories of ageing and functional decline, and the development and progression of chronic disease/s. The addition of the cohort born 1989-95 (those aged 18-23 years in 2012/13) has further enabled the ALSWH to examine how key stages and life events experienced by young women in 2012/13 differ from those reported by women of the same age in 1996. Collection of a wide range of socio-economic factors such as income, occupation, postcode and education also allows the investigation of social determinants of these life stages and key events.

Time Use

Provides an indicator of women’s roles and transitions in paid and unpaid work and providing care for others. There are questions about social support, overload, independence, leisure, feeling rushed, aspirations and financial resources.



Weight and Exercise


Includes the impact of weight and exercise, dieting and eating disorders on health and health service use outcomes, including the development of chronic disease. Questions include items about perceptions of body image, as well as general well being and quality of life, dieting and weight change.



Violence


Explores issues surrounding women’s experiences of physical and sexual abuse harassment, as well as issues of psychological and social abuse of older women.